Biology Most important questions and answers

  • A chemical change in DNA molecule is called mutation. 
  • The smallest bone, lies stapes is found in the human ear. 
  • Enzymes are basically proteins. 
  • Mitochondria is called the ‘power house of the cell’
  • Pancreas is both an endocrine and exocrine gland. 
  • Persons of blood group ‘0’ are called ‘Universal Donor’ while that of ‘AB’ are called ‘Universal Acceptors’. 
  • Seedless fruits are formed by parthenogenesis. 
  • Simple plants that contain no chlorophyll are called fungi. 
  • Spirogyra is commonly known as ‘pond silk’ 
  • Glycogen acts as a short-term food reserve in animals. 
  • Estrogen is a female-sex hormone. 
  • The enzyme amylase aids in the digestion of starch. 
  • ATP synthesis takes place in mitochondria. 
  • 70% of the body weight of a man is water. 
  • Adipose tissue in human being is present below dermis. 
  • The tough transparent membrane that protects the eye ball is called cornea. 
  • Energy is produced in human body by Carbohydrates. 
  • Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) provides energy for all kinds of activities of a cell. 
  • The largest flower in the world is Refflessia and the smallest one is wolfessia. 
  • Penicillin is obtained from penicillium Notatum. 
  • Reserpine derived from the plant ‘serpentine’ is used to alleviate high blood pressure. 
  • Plants, living in acidic soils, are called oxalophytes. 
  • Photosynthesis is most active in blue and red light in which light energy is converted into chemical energy and 02 is not a limiting process during this process. 
  • The longest muscle in the human body is found in thigh. 
  • In some leaves, the outermost layer of cells secrets continuous waxy layer, called cuticle. 
  • In a leaf, the opening between two guard cells is stomata. 
  • Gibberellins are responsible for cell elongation. 
  • The chemical name of chlorophyll is magnesium Dihydro prophysin. 
  • Bile is produced in liver and stored in gel bladder. 
  • All arteries, except pulmonary artery carry oxygenated blood. 
  • The main function of W.B. C. is to produce antibodies. 
  • Retina in the eye, acts as a film in the camera. 
  • Human tears contain a mild antibacterial agent, named Lysozyme. 
  • The biggest bone in the human body is femur. 
  • Vitamin B12 is almost never found in plants. 
  • Agrostology is the study of grasses. 
  • Phycology is the study of a algae while the study of fossils is called paleontology 
  • For the formation of chlorophyll iron and magnesium are needed. 
  • Hydroponics is cultivating plants without using soil. 
  • Palco botany is the study of fossils of botanical specimens. 
  • Pepsin & Lactose enzymes ad on proteins in the digestive system. 
  • The water soluble vitamins are vitamin B and C. 
  • Insulin in the human body is produced by Pancreas. 
  • Aorta is an artery which carries oxygenated blood. 
  • The main region of small intestine for food absorption is ileum. 
  • R.B.C. survives for 120 days. 
  • Chloroplast is the site of photosynthesis in plants. 
  • The vegetation of the desert consists of xerophytes. 
  • Carrot is a root. While potato is a steam. 
  • Penicillin is produced from fungi. 
  • A good source of vitamin A is carrot. 
  • Cell wall and vacuoles are present in a plant cell but are absent in an animal cell. 
  • Sugar is the product of the dark reactions of photosynthesis. 
  • Melvin Kelvin was awarded Nobel Prize for his work on Photosynthesis 
  • Chlorophyll contains magnesium in granae. 
  • Plants take nitrogen in the form of nitrates. 
  • Chlorella algae is rich in protein. 
  • The cells of woody stem, which are most important for the growth in thickness are called the cambium cells. 
  • The outer layer of cells of a stem is called epidermis. 
  • Abscise acid is directly responsible for the shedding of a leaf, flower or fruit from a plant. 
  • The largest sperms among plants are found in gymnosperms. 
  • The ‘red snow’ phenomenon is caused by the growth of algae. 
  • Seed dormancy can be broken by treating the seeds with gibberalic acid. 
  • A plant or plant cell having half the number of chromosomes than a normal body cell is called haploid. 
  • Vitamin-K helps in the process of blood-clotting. 
  • Amphibian refers to animals, which can live on both land and water. 
  • The yellow colour of urine is due to the presence of Urochrome. 
  • Pituitary gland is the growth gland in human body 
  • Wisdom teeth appear in a human being when age is between 17-30 years. 
  • Oxygen is present in maximum quantity in human body. 
  • The exchange of 02 and CO2 takes place in our lungs at alveoli. 
  • Vitamin-C is found in apples, apricot, and strawberry but not in date. 
  • Impure blood in the body enters the heart through right auricle. 
  • The total number of bones in an adult human body is 206. 
  • The face of a man is made up of 14 bones. 
  • Maximum absorption in human body takes place in spleen. 
  • Blood in human body is formed by yellow bone marrow. 
  • Spleen serves as a ‘Blood Bank’ in the body. 
  • The erythrocytes in mammals are enucleated, except in camel. 
  • The voice-box in birds is Syrinx. 
  • The average human eye can distinguish about 40 shades of colours. 
  • Chronology implies the art of repairing damaged bones. 
  • Tibia and Fibula are the bones present in leg. 
  • The basic defect of blood in Rhesus negative (Rh-negative) in individuals is that certain antibodies cannot be produced by their blood. 
  • Iron in the body is found mostly in hemoglobin, liver and kidneys. 
  • An earthworm has no eyes. 
  • Mitosis is the process of the division of somatic cells of an organism. 
  • Dry epithelium is found in hairs. 
  • A person’s colour of eyes depends upon the particular pigment present in the iris. 
  • Ovulation generally occurs mid-way through the menstrual cycle. 
  • The crossing over of the chromosomes takes place in meiosis. 
  • The largest blood vessel in the body is Aorta. 
  • Urea is removed from the blood by Kidneys. 
  • The Iris regulates the size of the Pupil in human eye. 
  • Estrogen, Testosterone and Androsterone are the sex- hormones. 
  • Appendix vermiform in man is a vestigial organ. 
  • The body stores food in the form of fat in adipose tissue. 
  • The Scientific study of teeth is called odontology. 
  • Ontology is the study of tumors. 
  • Oology is the science, which studies birds, eggs, etc. 
  • Asexual reproduction requires one individual of either sex. 
  • Antigens are capable of stimulating the formation of antibodies. . 
  • The yellow colour of cow’s milk is due to the presence of riboflavin. 
  • The nucleus is absent in Escherichia coli. 
  • Presence of Urea in the blood is called Uremia. 
  • In adult human beings, the number of vertebrae is 26. 
  • Body-building is anabolism, while its disintegration is Katabolism. 
  • Protoplesm is the physical basis of life 
  • The part of human brain that controls sneezing is Medulla oblongata. 
  • In human body iron is stored in liver. 
  • The temperature of human body is controlled by hypothalamus. 
  • Taxonomy is the science dealing with the identification, classification and nomenclature of all living organisms. 

Vitamin and Derived Foods

  • Vitamins A: Retinol & Carotene
  • Vitamin A: Carrot – night blindness.
  • Vitamin D: Caleiferal
  • Vitamin D: Sunlight on human skin-Rickets, Softness ‘of bones under development of teeth of in children.
  • Vitamin E: Tocopherol
  • Vitamin E: Growing seeds – in potency in humans
  • Vitamin K: Tamato
  • Vitamin K: -Grain – Blood clotting
  • Vitamin B1 -Thiamine
  • Vitamin B1: Cereals white flour – Berry berry
  • Vitamin B2: Riboflavin
  • Vitamin B2: Dairy – redness of eye blurred vision.
  • Vitamin B3: Niacen
  • Vitamin B3: Meat – Pellagra
  • Vitamin B5: Pantothenic acid
  • Vitamin B5: Beans – Focial dermatites
  • Vitamin B6: Pyridoxine
  • Vitamin B6: Whole – convulsions in child.
  • Vitamin B12: Cobalamine
  • Vitamin B12: Liver, Kidney. Red blood cell production – Pernicious anemia
  • Vitamin C: Ascorbic acid
  • Vitamin C: Citrus, tomato – Scurvy
  • Vitamin P: Nicotina mide
  • Vitamin P: Lemon, orange – Growth of bones produces poison in food

Human Diseases Caused by Fungi – Fungal Diseases

  • 1. Ringworm caused by Microsporum, Trichophyton by direct contact from unbathed cats and dogs or objects handled by infected individuals.
  • 2.Athlete’s foot caused by Trichophyton by Bad foot hygiene where skin remains warm and moist for long period, fungi finds optimal condition, invade dead outer layer of skin.

Human Diseases Caused by Viruses – Viral Diseases

  • 1. Smallpox caused by Variola Virus by direct contact (droplets), indirected by infected articles.
  • 2. Chicken pox caused by Varicella virus by direct contact (droplets) indirected by infected objects.
  • 3. Common cold caused by Rhinovirus by contact.
  • 4. Influenza/Flu caused by Orthomixo-virus by contact (droplets) virus transmitted through discharge from respiratory tracts of persons infected with disease
  • 5. Mumps caused by Mumps virus by direct contact, virus in Saliva and secretion of nose invades salivary glands.
  • 6. Viral encephalitis caused by Encephalitis virus (arbovirus) by some domestic animals reservoir of virus, transmitted by mosquito bite to man.
  • 7. Poliomyelitis caused by Poliovirus by contact, houseflies, fleas, food and water.
  • 8. Rabies (Hydrophobia) caused by Rabies virus (Rhabdovirus) by Bite a mad (rabid) dog.
  • 9. Dengue fever or breakbone fever caused by Dengue virus (arbovirus) by Mosquito (Aedes) bite.
  • 10. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) caused by Human T-cell Lenkemia virus (HTLV-IlI) also called LAV (Retrovirus) by blood and sperm among homosexuals, heterosexuals, intravenous drug users, haemophiliacs, promiscuous individuals and prostitutes.

Human Diseases Caused by Bacteria – Bacterial Diseases

  • 1. Septic sore throat caused by Streptococcus Sp by Bacteria infect throat and nasal membranes by droplets and direct contact.
  • 2. Diphtheria caused by Irregular rod (Corynebacterium diphtheria) by Bacteria infect respiratory tract by carrier, through contact, droplets and food items.
  • 3. Pneumonia caused by Diplococcus pneumonia by Bacteria transmitted to respiratory tract, including the lungs by droplet infection.
  • 4. Tuberculosis caused by Irregular rod (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) by Bacteria transmitted to lungs, bones and other organs by direct contact droplet infection, food and milk.
  • 5. Plague or Bubonic caused by Short rod (Yersinia pestis) by Rat flea spreads disease from rat to man.
  • 6. Tetanus or Lock-Jaw caused by Clostridium tetani by Bacteria in soil, enter through wound.
  • 7. Typhoid or enteric fever caused by, Salmonella typhi by Flies, food, faces water and carriers.
  • 8. Cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae by Flies food, stools, water and carriers.
  • 9. Bacillary dysentery caused by short rod (Shigella dysenteriae)by Flies, food, faeces, water and carriers.
  • 10. Whooping cough caused by small short rod (Hemophilus pertussis) by Droplets protected during
  • 11. coughing and sneezing.
  • 12. Syphilis caused by Spiral-shaped organism (Treponema pallidam) by direct contact, chiefly sexual intercourse.
  • 13. Leprosy caused by Mycobacterium Leprae by long and close contact with infected persons
  • 14. Botulism caused by Clostridium botulinum by organism produces poison in food.

Human Diseases Caused by Protozoans – Protozoans Diseases 

  • 1. Amoebic dysentery (Amoebiasis) caused by Entamoeba histolytica by Transmission from man to man through ingestion of cysts in drinking water vegetables and food contaminated with faeces.
  • 2. Diarrhea ‘Giardiasis’ caused by Giardia intestinalis by Transmission from man to man through ingestion of cysts in drinking water vegetables and food contaminated with faces.
  • 3. Malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax by Transmitted to man by bite of an infected female auophelise mosquito.
  • 4. Sleeping sickness (Trypanosomiasis) caused by Trypanosoma brucei by Transmitted by bite of tse-tse fly.

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