United Nations Organizations :
United Nations Organization (U.N.O.) officially came into existence on the 24 October, 1945, by ratification of the Charter by China, France, the U.S.S.R. and the U.S.A. October 24 is called the U.N. Day.
Purposes of the United Nations :
The purposes of the UN are the following : 1) Maintaining international peace and security, 2) Developing friendly relations among nations, 3) Cooperating internationally in solving economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems and in promoting respect for human rights and fundamentalfreedoms and 4) Harmonizing the actions of nations in attaining these common ends.
Human Rights Day :
10th October is observed as the Human Rights Day. The General Assembly of the UNO, recalling that on 10 December, 1973, the world community would celebrate the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Universal Declarationof Human Rights, expressed the hope that this anniversary would be celebrated in a manner which would fit the occasion and serve the cause of human rights.
Finance of the U.N. :
The U.N. is financed by contributions from member States on the recommendation of the Committee on Contributions. The member States contribute to the expenses of the U.N. budget and to the working Capital Fund.
Headquarters and Offices :
The headquarters of the U.N. is at New York. The European office is at Geneva, Switzerland. U.N. Information Centres and services are operating at 50 capital centres all over the world.
United Nation’s Flag :
The flag of the U.N. is light blue in colour and emblazoned in white at the centre with the U.N.’s symbol – a polar map of the world embraced by twin olive branches.
Organs of the United Nations Organization :
The principal organs of the United Nations are : 1) General Assembly, 2) Security Council, 3) Economic and Social Council, 4) Trusteeship Council, 5) International Court of Justice and 6) Secretariat.
U.N. International Agencies :
The following are U.N. International Agencies :
1. Food and Agricultural Organizational (FAO) Its purpose is to help nations to raise living standards and improve the efficiency of farming. Its headquarters is in Rome.
2. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
3. Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization.(IMCO)- It is a specialized body to deal with international shipping. Its headquarters is in London.
4. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)- Its aim is to enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity. Its headquarters is in Viena.
5. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) or World Bank. Its headquarters is in Washington.
6. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Its headquarters is in Mont read.
7. International Development Association (IDA)
8. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). Its headquarters is in Rome.
9. International Finance Corporation (IFC)- Its purpose is to promote economic development by investing in new and existing enterprises by bringing together private capital and management. Its headquarters is in Washington.
10. International Labour Organization (ILO)- The purpose of ILO are mainly to contribute to lasting peace by promoting social justice, to improve labour conditions and to promote economic and social stability. Its headquarters is in Geneva.
11. International Monetary Fund (IMF)- It is the world’s largest source of readily available international credit. Its headquarters is in Washington.
12. International Telecommunication Union (ITU)- Its headquarters is in Geneva.
13. International Trade Organization (ITo)
14. United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF)- Its headquarters is in New York.
15. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
16. United Nations Disengagement Observe Force (UNDOF)
17. United Nations Development programme (UNDP)
18. United Nations Disaster Relief Coordination Office (UNDRO)
19. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Its headquarters is in Paris.
20. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
21. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)- Its purpose is to promote industrial development of developing countries. Its headquarters is in Vienna.
22. United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)
23. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD)
24. Universal postal Union (UPU) Its headquarters is in Berne.
25. World Health Organization (WHO). This Organization came into being on April 7 in 1948. Its objective is attainment by all people the highest possible level of health. Its headquarters are at Geneva, Switzerland. April 7 is called the World Health Day.
26. World Food Programme (WFP)
27. World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Its headquarters is in Geneva.
28. Special United Nations Fund for Economic Development (SUNFED)